Day by Day Itinerary

As you travel through Central Europe, natural beauty and an amazing pageant of history will unfold before you—from the sun-drenched Dalmatian Coast to the Julian Alps in Slovenia—on this journey through some of the region's most magnificent landscapes. Enjoy an included tour of Dubrovnik—Europe’s best-preserved walled city—when you visit Croatia, tour the palace of Roman Emperor Diocletian, relax in the heart of the Croatian Riviera, and experience the resort of Lake Bled. Take part in fascinating Discovery Series discussions and get to know the local people at a memorable Home-Hosted Dinner. Discover these re-emerging, ancient nations when you travel to Central Europe with Grand Circle.

Dubrovnik Bled Expand All
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    Today you'll depart home, flying from your U.S. gateway to Dubrovnik, Croatia.

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    You'll land in Dubrovnik today, a Grand Circle representative will meet you at the airport, and you'll transfer to your hotel. You'll then meet your fellow travelers, including those from the Dubrovnik, Croatia pre-trip extension, over a Welcome Drink, followed by a Welcome Dinner at your hotel.

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    After breakfast, join us for an orientation briefing where your Program Director will go over the details of your Land Tour.

    Then enjoy an included city tour of Dubrovnik, one of the jewels of Croatia. You'll tour the Stari Grad, the extraordinarily well-preserved Old City, where you will likely want to linger and return. You’ll have free time after the tour to get lunch on your own and soak up the atmosphere of this very special place.

    Still an exquisite walled city today, Dubrovnik’s character reflects its storied past as an independent city-state that rivaled Venice. Also known by its Latin name, Ragusa, this was a fortress city that served as the base for a fleet of ships that carried trade between much of Europe and the Middle East. The city-state’s period of autonomy extended from 1358 to 1808. In recent times, some of Dubrovnik’s historic sites sustained damage in the Balkan conflicts of the early 1990s, but the city has been peaceful for more than ten years and largely restored under UNESCO supervision.

    This afternoon, learn a few valuable Croatian phrases during an informative exclusive Discovery Series language lesson, and enjoy the extra appreciation of the culture that understanding even a few words can bring. You might use it to order a beer (pivo), or to give a hearty “hello” to a Croatian (zdravo, or the less formal bok). And you’ll become wise to the fact that the Croatians’ name for their own country is Hrvatska, which explains why ".hr" is used as the country's Internet domain.

    Croatian cuisine is a flavorful blend of Mediterranean and Slavic influences, with a distinct regional style in Dalmatia, the province where Dubrovnik is located. During an exclusive Discovery Series event this evening, you’ll have a personal introduction to the preparation of some characteristic dishes, as a local family welcomes you into their home to enjoy a tasty dinner with them. Both the food and the hospitality are likely to be highlights of your time in Croatia.

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    Today is yours to spend at leisure. Or, you may join us on a full-day optional tour of Montenegro (Black Mountain), a republic whose roots go back to the eleventh century and which declared its independence in 2006. About the size of Connecticut, Montenegro is set apart from its geopolitical neighbors by never having been conquered by the Ottoman Turks. The country is blessed with remarkable natural beauty, from rugged mountain ranges to long, unbroken stretches of beach on the Adriatic.

    You’ll see Kotor Bay, Europe’s southernmost fjord (and a UNESCO Natural Heritage Site), which is surrounded by extraordinarily beautiful terrain. Then you’ll discover Kotor on a city tour, including a visit to the Maritime Museum. Beginning in the 14th century, Kotor was part of the Venetian Republic, and four centuries of Venetian influence have left a lasting impression on the city’s architecture and spirit. Kotor's narrow, criss-crossed streets and numerous public squares are a delight, and its secluded location, beautiful bay, and mountainous backdrop make a dramatic impression. You’ll enjoy lunch in Kotor as part of your optional tour.

    Dinner is on your own this evening. Choose from a wide selection of fine Dubrovnik restaurants. Your Program Director will have suggestions for you.

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    You have a full day to relax, have lunch on your own, and explore at your own pace. You might take in the lively morning market in the Stari Grad across from the Rector’s Palace. Stroll atop the city walls for terrific views, or spend time in the old city’s many art galleries. Or venture into the newer part of town to shop, or to find an interesting cafe for lunch on your own.

    Dinner is on your own. Or join us for an optional evening cruise along the ancient stone walls that have protected the Old City for five centuries. You'll enjoy a leisurely cruise before disembarking for a picturesque dinner at a local restaurant on the beach. Watch the sun set over Dubrovnik as you dine, and then cruise to the Old Town at dusk.

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    Today, you'll ride north to Split in the Croatian province of Dalmatia, stopping en route across the border in Bosnia and Herzegovina to explore the city of Mostar on an included tour. Mostar is internationally known for its Old Town and bridge, now a symbol of reconciliation, cooperation, and the co-existence of diverse cultural, religious, and ethnic communities. You will learn more about the republics of former Yugoslavia in Mostar, which developed under the Turks as a place where the cultures of the East and the West, the mainland and the Adriatic Sea, met and influenced each other.

    First, you’ll make a short photo stop in the picturesque village of Pocitelj, a charming reminder of Herzegovina’s oriental past. Then you’ll continue to Mostar, the economical, political, and cultural center of Herzegovina. The central part of the Old Town, with its forts, towers, and gates, was built by great Turkish builders in the 16th century. Damaged in the last war and restored in 2004 under UNESCO protection, it is a masterpiece of Turkish architecture. You’ll also visit one of Mostar’s mosques and a house from Turkish times, learning more about past and present life in a city whose turbulent history has made a unique mixture of people and cultures.

    During an included lunch, you’ll have an opportunity to taste some local specialties. After some free time to discover local handcrafts on your own, you’ll continue on to Split, where dinner is included at your hotel.

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    Today, enjoy an included tour of Split, an active port that is home to the ancient Roman Palace of Diocletian. This UNESCO World Heritage Site is one of the greatest Roman ruins in Central Europe. Built in AD 305 by the Emperor Diocletian, this fortress-like palace was protected by walls 590 feet by 705 feet. As you stand in the peristyle (central court) of this grand structure, its scale becomes impressively clear. The medieval town of Split took shape within the palace walls; Diocletian’s Temple of Jupiter was converted into a Christian baptistery and his mausoleum became a cathedral. The entire old section of Split, with the palace as its centerpiece, is a virtual open-air museum with the city’s contemporary life bustling through it.

    After your tour, you’ll return to your hotel. Lunch and dinner are on your own tonight.

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    After breakfast, transfer to Opatija, a city whose lush green scenery and pleasant climate have made it a popular European vacation destination for two centuries. You'll enjoy an included lunch this afternoon before arriving in Opatija in the early evening. Tonight, dinner is included at your hotel.

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    Your discoveries will begin with an included tour of Opatija, a colorful city that has been a favorite seaside destination since the days of the Habsburg dynasty. You'll have the opportunity to soak in the luxury of this eternally popular resort city on an included tour as you admire the beautiful villas on display, and stroll along its famous seaside promenade, the Lungomare, which offers stunning views of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Later today, you’ll gain insights into the region during an exclusive Discovery Series discussion on Croatia Today. You’ll learn about the contemporary culture and society of this historic nation.

    Lunch is on your own today. Tonight, enjoy dinner in a local restaurant.

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    You have today free for your own explorations. Admire the views of 4,580-foot Mount Ucka, the high point of the Istrian Peninsula, which blocks the north winds, keeping Opatija’s climate warm. You may want to spend time on the Lungomare, the seaside promenade that runs for 7.5 miles along the waterfront and leads to the attractive resort town of Lovran.

    Or, join an optional tour to see more of the subtropical Istrian Peninsula. We visit Rovinj, a coastal town built on land that was once an island, but was connected to the mainland by a causeway in the 18th century. The town overlooks an island-dotted Adriatic seascape and lush pine forests on the mainland, with large areas protected as parkland for their scenic beauty. Presided over by the Baroque church of St. Euphemia, Rovinj served as a health resort for children in the days of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and attracts active vacationers today for sports ranging from windsurfing to cycling. You’re likely to hear some Italian spoken in Rovinj, which hosts a sizeable Italian community as a result of the area's former rule by Italy.

    Following an included lunch at a family farm, we continue to the larger city of Pula, which has been a strategic port since the times of the ancient Romans. They built a 23,000-person amphitheater here, on a site overlooking the seacoast that is the sixth-largest of its kind to be preserved in the world.

    Dinner is on your own this evening.

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    After breakfast this morning, check out of your Opatija hotel and cross the border into Slovenia as you transfer to Bled. On the way, visit Slovenia's beautiful Postojna Caves, created by millions of years of water activity—drop by drop, year after year. Enjoy a short train ride and walk down into the caves as you explore the ancient wonder beneath the surface. After an included lunch at the caves, we continue to Bled, arriving in late afternoon. You’ll then enjoy a panoramic tour around Lake Bled.

    The evening is free to dine on your own in Bled.

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    After breakfast, you are invited to join us in an exclusive Discovery Series discussion about Slovenia Today. You’ll learn about the contemporary culture and society that you'll explore over the next few days.

    You have the afternoon and evening free to discover the Lake Bled area on your own, or to relax at this beautiful resort. Bled is blessed with natural hot springs regarded as having healing powers, and has been a popular fresh-air retreat since the mid-19th century. Near the hotel, forest paths designed by a 19th-century Swiss health advocate, Arnold Rikli, provide fine views, whether you walk them for exercise or ride in a one-horse carriage. Carriages also travel a lakeside promenade lined with chestnut trees, and rides on the lake in a pletna, a local version of a gondola, can take you to the island church (in season).

    Two prominent features in Bled’s vistas date from earlier in its history: Bled Castle, which for 800 years was the seat of the bishops of Brixen (now South Tyrol); and a 17th-century church located on an island in the lake. You’ll probably hear the pealing of this church’s “wishing bell,” which dates from 1534, since legend has it that a wish made by someone who rings it will come true.

    Or, you can join our optional Taste of Medieval Slovenia excursion to the beautiful old town of Skofja Loka, which was settled in the eighth century and became an important ecclesiastical, governmental, and trade center in the Middle Ages. The exquisite town center retains the architecture and the atmosphere of its 1,000-year history and rewards the traveler with a rare glimpse into Slovenia's past.

    Skofja Loka’s superb location at the confluence of the two Sora rivers and its position as a way station on the road between the coast and the inland Carinthian and Bavarian towns combined to create a flourishing craft and guild movement here. That rich legacy continues in this well-preserved town, which still boasts its imposing castle that overlooks the settlement, a Gothic church, and scores of lovingly restored 15th-century houses and structures, all linked by narrow streets. Every perspective here is packed with telling and delightful details. You’ll enjoy a guided tour of Skofja Loka and a visit to a typical Slovenian wooden cottage. You'll enjoy dinner in a local restaurant on this optional tour.

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    This morning, we’ll visit Ljubljana for a tour of this city of about 300,000 people. Because much of the city was rebuilt after an 1895 earthquake, Slovenia’s capital has a unique architectural style that has integrated surviving historic structures with more modern designs. The work of Joze Plecnik, a 20th-century architect and Ljubljana native, is particularly remarkable for the way it incorporates Roman, medieval, Baroque, and Habsburg elements. A number of buildings that survived the earthquake still stand in the historic part of town, Old Ljubljana. There are also many cafes here, and you may want to try one as you enjoy today’s lunch on your own.

    The Ljubljanica River flows through the heart of town, with dozens of shops and restaurants (providing more lunching options) on its promenaded embankments. The city’s large market squares sprawl along the river’s south bank, between the Plecnik-designed Triple Bridge and the Dragon Bridge, near the Cathedral of St. Nicholas (built in 1701). A lively student population swirls through all of these enticing public spaces because the city is home to Ljubljana University, Slovenia’s major institution of higher learning.

    Upon returning to Bled, you have the remainder of your afternoon free to follow your own interests. This evening, celebrate your journey with your fellow travelers during a Farewell Dinner accompanied by music.

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    Today, we explore the area surrounding Lake Bled and enjoy the dramatic vistas for which the area is well known. The third most-forested nation in Europe, Slovenia still contains remnants of primeval forests. We’ll travel some of its wooded countryside and find views of majestic mountains, steep slopes of valleys carved by ancient glaciers, and distant glimpses of Lake Bled’s placid waters. Occasional farm villages dot the rural landscape.

    In an exclusive Discovery Series event this morning, you’ll visit the small village of Kropa, an iron-forging settlement since the 15th century. One of the oldest villages in Slovenia, Kropa's many houses display lovely architectural details, such as forged-iron lantern holders, lush window boxes, and massive stone stairways. The town is nestled in a natural amphitheater among the sloping mountains. The area’s abundance of rapidly flowing water (krop means “boiling water”), iron ore, and timber led to its thriving iron industry.

    This evening, enjoy dinner at your hotel.

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    After breakfast, you'll be assisted to the airport for your return flight home. Or, discover Zagreb, Croatia, the country's capital, on our optional post-trip extension.


Traveler Reviews

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Questions and Answers

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Questions and Answers

Want to know more about one of our vacations? Now, when you post a question, travelers who have been on that trip can provide you with an honest, unbiased answer based on their experience—providing you with a true insider’s perspective.

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Weather & Regional

Before you travel, we encourage you to learn about the region of the world you'll discover on this trip. From weather and currency information to details on population, geography, and local history, you'll find a comprehensive introduction to your destinations below.

Visit our “What to Know” page to find information about the level of activity to expect, vaccination information resources, and visa requirements specific to this vacation.

Currency Cheat Sheet: Submit

What to Know

For more detailed information about this trip, download our Travel Handbook below. This document covers a wide range of information on specific areas of your trip, from passport, visa, and medical requirements; to the currencies of the countries you’ll visit and the types of electrical outlets you’ll encounter. This handbook is written expressly for this itinerary. For your convenience, we've highlighted our travelers' most common areas of interest on this page.

Download the Travel Handbook

What to Expect


  • 4 locations in 15 days

Physical requirements

  • Not accessible for travelers using wheelchairs or scooters
  • Travelers using walkers, crutches, or other mobility aids must travel with a companion who can assist them throughout the trip
  • You must be able to walk 1.5 miles unassisted and participate in 2 hours of physical activities each day, including stairs


  • Daytime temperatures range from 39-82° during touring season
  • June-August are the warmest months
  • November-December weather can be unpredictable and change quickly within a short period of time


  • Travel over uneven walking surfaces, including ancient ruins, caves, unpaved paths, steep hills, stairs, and cobblestone, which can be slippery in cooler or wet conditions


  • Travel by 45-seat motorcoach and passenger train
  • 2 days feature 6-9 hours of travel by motorcoach


  • Meals will be based on the local cuisine

Travel Documents


Your passport should meet these requirements for this itinerary

  • It should be valid for at least 6 months after your scheduled return to the U.S.
  • It should have the recommended number of blank pages (refer to the handbook for details).
  • The blank pages must be labeled “Visas” at the top. Pages labeled “Amendments and Endorsements” are not acceptable.


U.S. citizens do not need a visa for this trip.

If you are not a U.S. citizen, do not travel with a U.S. passport, or will be traveling independently before/after this trip, then your entry requirements may be different. Please check with the appropriate embassy or a visa servicing company. To contact our recommended visa servicing company, PVS International, call toll-free at 1-800-556-9990.

Vaccinations Information

For a detailed and up-to-date list of vaccinations that are recommended for this trip, please visit the CDC’s “Traveler’s Health” website. You can also refer to the handbook for details.

Before Your Trip

Before you leave on your vacation, there are at least four health-related things you should do. Please check the handbook for specifics, but for now, here’s the short list:

Step 1: Check with the CDC for their recommendations for the countries you’ll be visiting.
Step 2: Have a medical checkup with your doctor.
Step 3: Pick up any necessary medications, both prescription and over-the-counter.
Step 4: Have a dental and/or eye checkup. (Recommended, but less important than steps 1-3.)

What to Bring

In an effort to help you bring less, we have included checklists within the handbook, which have been compiled from suggestions by Program Directors and former travelers. The lists are only jumping-off points—they offer recommendations based on experience, but not requirements. You might also want to refer to the climate charts in the handbook or online weather forecasts before you pack. Refer to the handbook for details.

Insider Tips


Main Trip

  • Valamar Lacroma Hotel

    Dubrovnik, Croatia

    Located on the scenic Babin Kuk Peninsula, this hotel features a range of amenities, including a fitness center, spa, tennis courts, and a swimming pool. Each of its 385 air-conditioned rooms include cable TV, coffee- and tea-making facilities, minibar, telephone, safe, private bath, and more.

  • Hotel President Solin

    Solin, Croatia

    Located in the center of this charming city, the Hotel President Solin is a wonderful base to relax after a day of exploring. Built in 2009, this hotel features modern amenities, and the city of Split is only a few minutes' drive away. You may choose to take advantage of the hotel’s Jacuzzi, indoor and outdoor pools, spa, or fitness center. Your air-conditioned room features a telephone, complementary Internet access, safe, and minibar.

  • Hotel Continental

    Opatija, Croatia

    Steps from Opatija’s scenic waterfront and Angiolina Park, the 53-room Hotel Continental is an Austro-Hungarian villa dating back to 1898. Amenities include a café, pub, and champagne and fresh juice bar, and each air-conditioned room features a telephone, satellite TV, safe, minibar, and private bath with hair dryer.

  • Hotel Park

    Bled, Slovenia | Rating: First Class

    At the First-Class Park Hotel, you’ll enjoy a modern lakeside hotel surrounded by verdant grounds just steps away from town and nature trails. Hotel amenities include a pizzeria, restaurant, cafe bar with a large terrace, ATM, indoor pool, and more. Your room with balcony features a direct-dial telephone, cable TV, radio, and private bath with shower.


  • Valamar Lacroma Hotel

    Dubrovnik, Croatia

    Located on the scenic Babin Kuk Peninsula, this hotel features a range of amenities, including a fitness center, spa, tennis courts, and a swimming pool. Each of its 385 air-conditioned rooms include cable TV, coffee- and tea-making facilities, minibar, telephone, safe, private bath, and more.

  • Westin Zagreb Hotel

    Zagreb, Croatia | Rating: Superior First Class

    Centrally located in downtown Zagreb, the Superior First-Class Westin Zagreb offers a health club, indoor pool, laundry facilities, and ATM/bank. Your air-conditioned room features cable/satellite TV, telephone, minibar, radio/alarm clock, and private bath with shower and hair dryer.

Flight Information

Your Flight Options

Whether you choose to take just a base trip or add an optional pre- and post-trip extension, you have many options when it comes to personalizing your air—and creating the Grand Circle vacation that’s right for you:

Purchase Flights with Grand Circle

  • Work with our expert Air Travel Consultants to select the airline and routing you prefer
  • Upgrade to business or premium economy class
  • Customize your trip by staying overnight in a connecting city, arriving at your destination a few days early, or spending additional time in a nearby city on your own
  • Combine your choice of Grand Circle vacations to maximize your value

Make Your Own Arrangements

  • Make your own international flight arrangements directly with the airline
  • Purchase optional airport transfers to and from your hotel
  • Extend your Land Tour-only Travel Protection Plan coverage and protect the air arrangements you make on your own—including your frequent flyer miles

OR, leave your air routing up to us and your airfare (as well as airport transfers) will be included in your final trip cost.

Estimated Flight Times

We understand that international travel has unique challenges including fewer airline choices and limited flight schedules. The chart below provides estimated travel times and the typical number of connections from popular departure cities to help you plan for your trip.

Please note that traveling to Dubrovnik, and from Ljubljana, will require multiple connections, and these flight rigors should be taken into consideration.

Supporting a World Classroom: Croatia

By seeing how children are educated all over the world, we gain a rare understanding of different cultural values—as well as the common values that unite us all. When you visit, we bring you into one of two local schools supported by Grand Circle Foundation and introduce you to Croatia's future as part of our World Classroom experience (provided class is in session).

"It was wonderful to see how dedicated both the teachers and the students are to the kids' education. The children are great ambassadors for their country."

Mae McCurdy
Syracuse, New York

Anton Tomaz Linhart Elementary School, Kantrida Elementary School

Partner since: 2006 • Total donated: $87,000

When Sylvia and Robert Cotter, 18-time travelers from Orleans, Massachusetts, visited an elementary school in Croatia, they were delighted to see Foundation funds in action. “We enjoyed our school visit very much,” Sylvia recalls. "We brought the teacher some colored pencils—but more importantly, received a drawing from the students. We loved it!"

Today, Grand Circle Foundation supports Croatia’s Anton Tomaz Linhart Elementary School and Kantrida Elementary School. At Anton Tomaz, we’ve helped purchase kitchen and dining room equipment, an oven, tables, and a photocopier. Funds at Kantrida have supported classroom renovation, costumes for traditional folklore performances, and classroom equipment for special needs students.

School in session:

September through June, with periodic closures for Christmas, New Year's, Easter, and national holidays

Gifts to bring if you're visiting:

  • Drawing paper
  • Pens and Pencils
  • Notebooks
  • Books in English for early readers
  • World maps
  • Souvenirs from home (postcards, etc.)
Alan and Harriet Lewis founded Grand Circle Foundation in 1992 as a means of giving back to the world we travel. Because they donate an annually determined amount of revenue from our trips, we consider each one of our travelers as a partner in the Foundation’s work around the world. To date, the Foundation has pledged or donated more than $97 million in support of 300 different organizations—including 60 villages and nearly 100 schools that lie in the paths of our journeys.

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What Makes This Trip Unique

Exclusive Discovery Series Events

  • Croatian language lesson. Learn to appreciate the Croatian culture by picking up a few valuable phrases during an informative language lesson.
  • Home-Hosted Dinner. Taste Croatian specialties at the home of a Dubrovnik-area family.
  • Croatia Today discussion. Gain insights into this fascinating region during an in-depth discussion.
  • Slovenia Today discussion. Learn about the country's contemporary culture and society during a special discussion.
  • Visit to Kropa Village. Discover one of the oldest villages in Slovenia, an iron-forging settlement since the 15th century.

Enjoy the opportunity to visit 4 UNESCO World Heritage Sites

  • Dubrovnik & Rector's Palace
  • Kotor Bay
  • Mostar
  • Split & Diocletian’s Palace

10 Reasons to experience Dubrovnik & Beyond: From the Adriatic to the Alps—in the words of our travelers

We often find that the best endorsements of our discovery-rich vacations come directly from our travelers. From the ancient city walls of Dubrovnik to Mostar's striking bridge to the sparkling Lake Bled, here are just a few memorable experiences from those who travel to Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina with us.

Lake Bled, Slovenia
"Slovenia's Lake Bled is like a fairy-tale postcard complete with a castle on the bluff above lake, especially when sitting on a cafe terrace viewing the lake while sipping cappuccino and/or eating a gelato."
A first-time traveler from Alexandria, VA

Home-Hosted Dinner
"Most memorable moment ... Our Home-Hosted Dinner with Branko and Maria, on the outskirts of Dubrovnik. Both were so proud of their heritage. Living in a 100+ year old stone home built by Maria's grandfather, we had the opportunity to sample Branko's homemade various grappas, wines, and candied citrus rinds and nuts. After a delicious dinner, Branko and Maria shared a traditional dance with us and showed us traditional costumes passed down over the generations."
A 5-time traveler from Huntington Beach, CA

Local history
"Seeing a Church built in 809 and a home over 500 years old and both still in use today, along with the visit to Roman palaces, Coliseum, etc. all made this an outstanding and worthwhile experience."
A 15-time traveler from Cherry Hill, NJ

Dubrovnik, Croatia pre-trip extension
"The best thing I did was to book the pre-trip extension. I saw that the itinerary is so full and I knew I wanted a few extra days in Dubrovnik to savor it. It was so worth it! Instead of being rushed, I had time to go on my own and just relax and enjoy it. It just set the perfect tone for the rest of the trip ..."
A 3-time traveler from Mesquite, TX

Ljubljana, Slovenia
"... Llubljana is a beautiful city that had its main downtown area renovated into a pedestrian mall so that you can see all of the wonderful architecture."
A 10-time traveler from New Berlin, WI

Program Directors
"Your company's ability to find guides like Eva—well, she was the jewel that unraveled the mysteries and the joys plus having an infectious laugh and magnanimous personality. And she had us taste some of the country's specialties."
A 4-time traveler from Dayton, OH

Istrian Peninsula optional tour
"I would have to say my most favorite place was Rovinj—the city with its Italian influences—its portside cafes and restaurants added another level of cultural experience."
A 5-time traveler from Huntington, NY

Mostar, Bosnia & Herzegovina
"Mostar in Bosnia with its rebuilt bridge and the remains of buildings damaged during the recent war was especially interesting to me."
A 4-time traveler from Oregon, OH

Opatija, Croatia
"One of the highlights, for me, was visiting Opatija, a health resort where the sea air meets the mountain air. With its 12 miles of walkways along the coast of the Adriatic, this little known place is called “Vienna by the Sea.” The Austrian architecture contributes to the feeling of being in Vienna, Austria. We enjoyed gelato while strolling along the walkway and gazing at the beautiful surroundings."
A 13-time traveler from Lansdowne, VA

Montenegro optional tour
"Montenegro is very nice and beautiful; we visited Kotor and took the scenic road around Kotor Bay. You will love this trip because of the view from mountain and water in the bay. We enjoyed the Old town too. We also enjoyed crossing Kotor Bay by ferry."
A 7-time traveler from Plymouth, IN

Want to travel to Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina? Call us toll-free at 1-800-221-2610 for reservations and information.

Liberal Arts

The progressive culture of the Republic of Ragusa

by David Valdes Greenwood, for Grand Circle

Sculpture and painting reached new heights in Ragusa, with 16th century masters bringing new realism and softness to depictions of religious and cultural life ...

The somber leader leaned over the table, his pale brow furrowed as he considered the words before him one last time. His advisors and peers waited quietly, knowing the significance of the moment. And then, with a stroke of a pen, it was over. The slaves were declared free.

This dramatic moment might sound familiar, the stuff of Lincoln biographies and American history texts. But in fact, the scene played out more than 4,000 miles away and 400 years before the U.S. Emancipation Proclamation.

The scene described is the legal abolition of slavery in the Republic of Ragusa, a maritime state that rivaled Venice in its heyday. And the ruler was not a president, but a prince surrounded by some of the wealthiest men in the kingdom. Surprisingly for an aristocracy of that type, Ragusa—the heart of which we now know as the city of Dubrovnik—made itself a place where the most progressive ideals came to life. Ragusa was never perfect, but while it lasted, it came close to demonstrating how a society that believed in liberty could make such a thing true.

Silver spoons & hearts of gold

Life in Ragusa was decidedly stratified. There were only three classes: the plebeians, consisting of the poor and the laborers: citizens, the equivalent of the middle class; and nobility, whose status was guaranteed by birth. Being noble came not only with status and wealth, but with power.

According to the laws of Ragusa, only nobility could hold major government offices. The head of state was a Rector (chosen from among the princes) who presided over two councils, but the powerhouse body was the Senate. To avoid corruption, both Rector and Senators were subject to strict term limits: one month for Rectors and one year for Senators. In this way, the long-term values of the group as a whole became more dominant than the values of a single individual in any given session.

Happily, what they valued was (to use American lingo) liberty and justice for all. The flag of the Republic bore the motto Libertas (freedom) and the fortress walls at the entrance to the city were inscribed with this phrase: Non bene pro toto libertas venditur auro (“Liberty cannot be sold for all the gold of the world”). This was more than a slogan, for these wealthy elite put in place some of the most progressive policies Europe had ever seen.

A kinder, gentler Europe

The nobles established both an almshouse for the elderly and an orphanage for the young. The orphanage was created not just to care for children whose parents had died, but also for those born out of wedlock. Wearing veils to hide their features, women came at night to the ruota, a rotating wooden platform at the entry to the orphanage. After kissing her infant goodbye, a mother would ring the bell and slip away. The staff of the orphanage would allow for a few moments to pass out of concern for the mother’s privacy, and then turn the ruota so that the baby could be taken in. Concern for the emotional well-being of the mother was so great that a law was passed to severely punish any who dared accost a woman before she could depart.

But the greatest accomplishment in forward-thinking Ragusa was the abolition of slavery. In 1416, with the full support of the Senate, the Rector of Ragusa signed a proclamation that the existing slaves were to be free and that further transport of slaves through the region was prohibited. As Ragusa depended little on slave labor aside from household servants, it was that latter provision that had the most effect: Slave labor had been a major component of the trade between Eastern and Western Europe. Cutting off this supply route took a number of years but it set a precedent, and Venice was one of the states that followed suit before the end of the 1400s.

With such progressive policies in place, Ragusa blossomed, and the 15th century saw the acquisition of the coveted islands of Korcula, Brac, and Hvar. Ragusa’s population swelled to more than 40,000—putting it on par with London—and for the next 200 years, it was the showpiece of the Balkans. Public and private buildings rose at an astonishing rate. Sculpture and painting reached new heights in Ragusa, with 16th century masters bringing new realism and softness to depictions of religious and cultural life.

Shake, rattle, and fall

So how did such a richly cultured economic powerhouse lose its way? First, an earthquake in 1667 destroyed most of the city. Among the 5,000 dead were the Rector and a fair number of Senators, throwing leadership into chaos.

A second blow was to come, this time political: Just as the Ottoman Empire (an ally and protector of Ragusa) was waning, both Habsburg Austria and Napoleonic France were ascending. By not shoring up its alliances, Ragusa risked being left friendless should one side emerge triumphant. And that is just what happened.

The city eventually surrendered to Napoleon, and in 1815 the entire territory was awarded to the Habsburgs at the Congress of Vienna. Just like that, with a stroke of another pen, the Republic of Ragusa was abolished, centuries of power signed away into history.